Comments / Research Needs:
JUV pictured above was captured on 8-January-2005; no downy feathers on vent, but gape was present.
In the absence of a cloacal protuberance or brood patch, we don't recommend sexing individuals in HY / SY FORMATIVE plumage and urge caution in sexing AHY / ASYs until more data are available.
Larger sample sizes needed to determine whether Pre-Alternate Moult occurs.
CPs (n=3) recorded from early April through early May.
BP (n=1) recorded mid-June.